Attack of the Clone Firms: Over £78 Million Stolen in 'Clone Firm' Investment Scams

  • The number of reports of ‘clone firm’ investment scams has increased by 29% since the UK went into the first lockdown.

  • Consumers report losses of more than £45,000 each, on average.

  • 77% of investors do not know or are unsure of what a ‘clone investment firm’ is.

  • ScamSmart campaign advises investors to only use contact details on the FCA Register to help avoid clone firm scams

The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) is issuing a warning to the public as reports of ‘clone firm’ investment scams increased by 29% in April 2020 compared to March, when the UK went into its first lockdown.


Action Fraud data reveals consumers reported losses of more than £78 million between January-December 2020. Throughout 2020, consumers reported average losses of £45,242 each on average when investing with fraudsters imitating genuine investment firms. The data has been released as part of the FCA’s ScamSmart campaign, alongside advice to help investors avoid fake firms and protect their hard-earned cash.


The ongoing financial impact of Covid-19 may also make people more susceptible to these types of clone scams. 42% of investors say they are currently worried about their finances because of the pandemic, and over three quarters (77%) have or plan to make an investment within the next six months to help improve their financial situation.

However, the FCA highlights that even the most experienced investor could be at risk. Three quarters (75%) of investors said they felt confident they could spot a scam. However, 77% admitted they did not know or were unsure what a ‘clone investment firm’ was.


Clone firms are fake firms set up by scammers using the name, address and ‘Firm Reference Number’ (FRN) of real companies authorised by the FCA. Once set up, these fraudsters will then send sales materials linking to websites of legitimate firms to dupe potential investors into thinking they are the real firm when they are not.


The FCA is advising anyone considering an investment opportunity to check the Warning List of firms, which is updated daily, and not to deal with a firm that is not authorised by the FCA. The specific details of a firm, such as a telephone number and website address can be verified on the FCA Register. The FCA also warns consumers to use the phone number on the FCA Register to make contact with an FCA authorised firm so as to be sure they are dealing with the real firm.


Even though two in five (38%) investors said they would check the company’s Firm Reference Number (FRN), checking this alone isn’t enough. Scammers will often copy FRN numbers and encourage victims to check the FCA Register to prove their legitimacy.

Consumer champion and presenter of Watchdog, Matt Allwright, said:

“It may seem appealing - particularly right now - to make some investments to boost your savings or income. However, it is more important than ever to tune into the finer print, spot the beartraps and triple check details before parting with your money.


“A clone firm scam can target anyone, they are usually smart fraudsters who often present opportunities which look very tempting indeed. When considering your next investment, make sure you only ever use the details listed on the FCA Register, and think about getting impartial advice before going ahead.”


Janet from Chester, who lost £40,000 to a clone investment firm said:

“I’m quite savvy minded when it comes to money – being a finance officer I thought I was a confident investor and thought I knew how to spot the warning signs of a scam. After searching the internet for high-return bonds, I received a call the next day about investing in student accommodation.

“I found legitimate details of the company online - everything seemed genuine, so I invested. A few months later, after a couple more investments, I started to get a bit worried - I still hadn’t received confirmation of the latest investment. I tried to call the contacts I had been speaking to, but the numbers were invalid. It was clear I had been scammed. I had lost £40,000. I really thought I’d be able to spot a scam, but now I know they can be far more sophisticated than I had ever imagined.”


How to protect yourself from clone investment firms:

  1. Reject unsolicited investment offers whether made online, on social media or over the phone. Be wary even if you initiated the contact.

  2. Always check the FCA Register to make sure you’re dealing with an authorised firm and check the FCA Warning List of firms to avoid.

  3. Only use the telephone number and email address on the FCA Register, not the contact details the firm gives you and look out for subtle differences.

  4. Consider seeking impartial advice before investing.

Learn more about Brand Impersonation and how you can protect your business. Read more

The contents of this website are provided for general information only and are not intended to replace specific professional advice relevant to your situation. The intention of Cyber Resilience Centre for Greater Manchester (CRCGM) is to encourage cyber resilience by raising issues and disseminating information on the experiences and initiatives of others.  Articles on the website cannot by their nature be comprehensive and may not reflect most recent legislation, practice, or application to your circumstances. CRCGM provides affordable services and Trusted Partners if you need specific support. For specific questions please contact us.

CRCGM does not accept any responsibility for any loss which may arise from reliance on information or materials published on this website. CRCGM is not responsible for the content of external internet sites that link to this site or which are linked from it.